International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 15 Issue 1, January - March, Pages:39-53

The Effects of Protein-Energy Malnutrition On Children Under Five Years of Age

Muhammad Zubair, Meenakshi Mishra, Umesh Kumar and Pankaj Kishor Mishra

Nutritive status is one of the essential pointers for crucial signs of health. Malnutrition is a public health problem ofsignificant significance in growing countries. Malnutrition affects about one in five children and is associated with a higher risk ofinflammation and other diseases. This review identifies several protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) types and presents ourperspective on PEM. This review outlines the diseases caused by PEM and the variables influenced by PEM. Additionally, itdescribes how children are fed in India. The term "severe acute malnutrition" has replaced the term PEM, which was once usedto describe children with severe wasting and kwashiorkor (nutritional edema). The determinants of PEM can be broadly dividedinto four groups: biological, environmental, behavioural, and healthcare service-related factors. This article reviews malnutritionhealth status in developing countries, its classifications, determinants, epidemiology and impact, biochemical disturbances in thebody, laboratory investigation, diseases, effects on the brain, and influence of climate change.

Keywords: Protein-Energy Malnutrition, nonage, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Paediatric, Severe Acute Malnutrition.
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