International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 12 Issue 2, 2021 (April-June), Pages:73-79

Prevalence of Risk Factors and Pharmacotherapeutic Management of COPD in Elderly Patients

Meenu Pandey, Meera N.K and Huliraj

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most common illness in the elderly population. Treating elderly patients is a challenge for physicians because of the co-existence of multi-morbidities, which increases the number of prescribed medications among these patients. The objectives of this study were to identify prevalence of associated risk factors and to evaluate pharmacotherapeutic management of COPD in elderly patients. A prospective, observational study was conducted from January 2019 to December 2019 in the department of pulmonary medicine of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 136 elderly patients diagnosed with COPD aged above 65 years who consented to take part in the study and fulfilled study criteria were enrolled. A well designed and internally validated case report form was used to document the findings after a due approval obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Socio-demographic characteristics, prescribed medications, risk factor and clinical characteristics were documented and analyzed. Out of 136 elderly patients, 52.21% were male while 47.79% were female. The mean age of the participants was 70.68±5.08 (SD) years. Amongst the study patients 48.53% had other comorbidities. The major risk factors associated with COPD were smoking (38.97%), biomass fuel exposure (16.91%) and occupational exposure (36.76%). Treatment with antibiotic combination therapy was observed in 48.53% of patients, 46.32% with antibiotic monotherapy followed by 4.41% with escalation of therapy. It is evident from this study that the prevalence of risk factors such as age, cigarette smoking, exposure to biomass smoke and occupation plays a role in the development of COPD and it requires a rational approach in the management of COPD in the elderly patients.

Keywords: COPD, Prevalence, Risk factors, Pharmacotherapeutic management
Full HTML:


1.       Singh S, Bajorek B. Defining ’elderly’ in clinical practice guidelines for pharmacotherapy. Pharm Pract. 2014, Oct–Dec;12(4):489. doi: 10.4321/s1886-36552014000400007, PMID 25580172.

2.       Khan S, Itrat M. Current issues in geriatric health care in India-A review. J Commun Health Care. 2016;1(1):1003.

3.       Karametos I, Tsiboli P, Togousidis I, Hatzoglou C, Giamouzis G, Gourgoulianis KI. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a main factor of premature aging. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(4):540. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16040540, PMID 30781849.

4.       Ahmed B, Nanji K, Mujeeb R, Patel MJ. Effects of Polypharmacy on adverse drug reactions among geriatric outpatients at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi: A prospective cohort study. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(11):e112133. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112133, PMID 25402452.

5.       Woldeamanuel GG, Mingude AB, Geta TG. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated factors among adults in abeshge district, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Pulm Med. 2019;19(1):181. doi: 10.1186/s12890-019-0946-z, PMID 31623601.

6.       Tudorache E, Fildan AP, Frandes M, Dantes E, Tofolean DE. Aging and extrapulmonary effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Interv Aging. 2017;12:1281-87. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S145002, PMID 28860729.

7.       Bellocchia M, Masoero M, Ciuffreda A, Croce S, Vaudano A, Torchio R, Boita M, Bucca C. Predictors of cardiovascular disease in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multidiscip Respir Med. 2013;8(1):58. doi: 10.1186/2049-6958-8-58, PMID 24004921.

8.       Guillien A, Puyraveau M, Soumagne T, Guillot S, Rannou F, Marquette D, Berger P, Jouneau S, Monnet E, Mauny F, Laplante JJ, Dalphin JC, Degano B. Prevalence and risk factors for COPD in farmers: a cross-sectional controlled study. Eur Respir J. 2016;47(1):95-103. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00153-2015, PMID 26453630.

9.       Aguirre JCF, Guillen KAG, Serrano MEA, Maldonado JRV. Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results of the FARIECE study. Rev Med Hosp Gen Méx. 2015;78(4):162-68.

10.     Said AF, Ewis AA, Omran AA, Magdy ME, Saleeb MF. Prevalence and predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among high-risk Egyptians. Egypt J Bronchol. 2015 Jun;9:27-33.

11.     Kraïm-Leleu M, Lesage FX, Drame M, Lebargy F, Deschamps F. Occupational risk factors for COPD: A case-control study. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0158719. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158719, PMID 27487078.

12.     Barbosa ATF, Carneiro JA, Ramos GCF, Leite MT, Caldeira AP. Factors associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among the elderly. Cien Saúde Colet. 2017;22(1):63-73. doi: 10.1590/1413-81232017221.13042016, PMID 28076530.

13.     Wilson R, Sethi S, Anzueto A, Miravitlles M. Antibiotics for treatment and prevention of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect. 2013;67(6):497-515. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.08.010, PMID 23973659.

14.     Delgado Silveira E, Fernandez-Villalba EM, García-Mina Freire M, Albiñana Pérez MS, Casajús Lagranja MP, Peris Martí JF. The impact of Pharmacy Intervention on the treatment of elderly multi-pathological patients. Farm Hosp. 2015;39(4):192-202. doi: 10.7399/fh.2015.39.4.8329, PMID 26276737.

15.     Sirois C, Ouali A, Simard M. Polypharmacy among older individuals with COPD: trends between 2000 and 2015 in Quebec, Canada. Chronic Obstruct Pulm Dis. 2019:1-6.

16.     Rakesh KB, Chowta MN, Shenoy AK, Shastry R, Pai SB. Evaluation of polypharmacy and appropriateness of prescription in geriatric patients: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital. Indian J Pharmacol.

[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions