International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 12 Issue 2, 2021 (April-June), Pages:124-135

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) – An Alternative to Commercial Fertilisers

Sumaiya A. Shaikh, Pooja V Patel, Neelam Y.Kadam and Parimal M.Patel

Soil is a dynamic living matrix and it isn't only a critical resource in agricultural produce yet it is too towards uptake of all life processes. The chemical fertilizers utilized in agriculture to expand yields, pests, and weeds, have a big harmful impact on the ecosystem. Because of current public concerns about the symptoms of agrochemicals, there is an understanding of cooperative activities of plants and rhizosphere microbial populations. So, there is a need for biological agents that are acknowledged worldwide. The utilization of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a better choice to solve this problem. PGPR are microorganisms that can be used to improve plant reactions against biotic and abiotic stresses. Rhizosphere microbiomes which have appeared to improve plant development and yield are regulated or impacted by a couple of natural factors, for example, soil type, plant cultivar, environmental change furthermore, anthropogenic exercises. This accomplishment is achievable by saddling nitrogen-fixing endophytic and free-living rhizobacteria. Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Bacillus, have been found to affect crops by upgrading both above and subterranean biomass and could thus assume positive function in accomplishing maintainable agribusiness results. Consequently, it is important to consider this rhizosphere microbiome with more advanced culture-free methods. This points towards examining factors that can tweak rhizosphere microbiome with centre around the commitments of nitrogen fixing microorganisms towards economical horticultural turn of events and the strategies that can be utilized for their betterment. Future examination in rhizosphere science will depend on the promotion of sub-atomic and biotechnological ways to deal with increment of our insight into rhizosphere science and to accomplish a coordinated administration of soil microbial population.

Keywords: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobia (PGPR), Biofertilizer, Rhizosphere soil, Sustainable agriculture.
Full HTML:


1.       Fertilizers. Neha Singh. Please suggest me a good bio-fertilizer for detailed study? [cited Apr 14 2016] Available from:

2.       Youssef MMA, Eissa MFM. Biofertilizers and their role in management of plant parasitic nematodes: E J Biotechnology. Pharm Res. 2014;5:1-6.

3.       Ivanova S, Nosov V. Development of agriculture in Russia and its impact on fertilizer use, International Plant Nutrition Institute; 2011. Available from:

4.       Joshi KK, Kumar V, Dubey RC, Maheshwari DK, Bajpai VK, Kang S. Effect of chemical fertilizer adaptive variants, Pseudomonas aeruginosa GRC2 and Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 on Macrophomena phaseolina causing charcoal rot of Brassica juncea. Korean J Environ Agric. Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture. 2006;25(3):228-35. doi: 10.5338/KJEA.2006.25.3.228.

5.       Akhtar N, Qureshi MA, Iqbal A, Ahmad MJ, Khan KH. Influence of Azotobacter and IAA on symbiotic performance of Rhizobium and yield parameters of lentil. J Agric Res. 2012;50:361-72.

6.       Kloepper JW, Leong J, Teintze M, Schroth MN. Enhancement of plant growth by siderophores produced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Nature. 1980;286(5776):885-6. doi: 10.1038/286885a0.

7.       Ahemad M, Khan MS. Effect of insecticide-tolerant and plant growth volume 7 (2). J Crop Sci Biotechnol. 2015 101J Microbe Biochem Technol ISSN: 1948-5948 JMBT, an open access journal promoting Mesorhizobium on the performance of chickpea grown in insecticide stressed alluvial soils;12:213-22:096-102. doi: 10.1007/s12892-009-0130-8.

8.       Sagar S, Dwivedi A, Yadav S, Tripathi M, Kaistha SD. Hexavalent chromium reduction and plant growth promotion by Staphylococcus arlettae strain Cr11. Chemosphere. 2012;86(8):847-52. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.031, PMID 22169713.

9.       Maheshwari DK, Dubey RC, Aeron A, Kumar B, Kumar S, Tewari S, Arora NK. Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28(10):3015-24. doi: 10.1007/s11274-012-1112-4, PMID 22828791.

10.     Glick BR. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol. 1995;41(2):109-17. doi: 10.1139/m95-015.

11.     Hiltner L. Iiber neuere Erfahrungen und unter besonderer Berucksichtingung der Grundunging und Brache. Arb Dtsch Landw Ges. 1904;98:59-78.

12.     Paul D, Lade H. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria to improve crop growth in saline soils: a review. Agron Sustain Dev. 2014;34(4):737-52. doi: 10.1007/s13593-014-0233-6.

13.     Apel K, Hirt H. Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2004;55:373-99. doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141701, PMID 15377225.

14.     Dodd IC, Pérez-Alfocea F. Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress. J Exp Bot. 2012;63(9):3415-28. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers033, PMID 22403432.

15.     Munns R. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ. 2002a;25(2):239-50. doi: 10.1046/j.0016-8025.2001.00808.x, PMID 11841667.

16.     Tester M, Davenport R. Na+ tolerance and Na+ transport in higher plants. Ann Bot. 2003;91(5):503-27. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcg058, PMID 12646496.

17.     Aeron A, Kumar S, Pandey P, Maheshwari DK. Emerging role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agrobiology. In: Maheshwari DK, editor, Bacteria in agrobiology: crop ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 1-36. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-18357-7_1.

18.     Martínez-Viveros OM, Jorquera MA, Crowley DE, Gajardo G, Mora ML. Mechanisms and practical considerations involved in plant growth promotion by rhizobacteria. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr. 2010;10(3):

[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions