International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 12 Issue 2, 2021 (April-June), Pages:166-172

Act of Phytochemical-Based Antioxidants in Neurodegenerative Disorders Utilizing Indian Medicinal Plants

Navya Raj MP1* Pooja G Singh1 and Sushma BV1.

Neurodegenerative diseases are multifactorial nervous system deteriorating conditions that concern over 30 million aging populations worldwide. The effect of protein malfunction or defective trafficking is neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer disease [AD], Parkinson’s disease [PD], Huntington's and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disorders. Furthermore, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress / age-linked environmental factors have also been involved. Prolonged use of synthetic medications could lead to adverse side effects for these illnesses. Henceforth herbal therapy attracts much attention rather than a pharmaceutical therapy is favoured. Indeed, several research studies have identified use of medicinal plants and their components for drug production, and recently more than 100 new medicines are now being established clinically. Accumulative data shows that nutraceuticals property is critical for cognition optimisation and risk mitigation. The study explores the role of phytochemical based antioxidants in cognitive and adverse signal transduction events, with a special focus on the Mediterranean diet [MeDi] comprising bioactive compounds like - xanthophyll carotenoids and omega-3 fatty acids. These phytochemical compounds are capable of improving cognition, considering their selective brain involvement and their specifically oxidative damage and inflammation. The objective of this study is to detail the molecular mechanisms of some Ayurvedic plants signal transduction and locations of operation. It is hoped that this review further helps to examine a new therapeutic recommendations and further research in clinical trials on the use of poly-herbal Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia. It is expected to increase the ease in the usage of Ayurveda-based knowledge base combined with combined scientific and high-performance screening strategies in the drug research and development campaign, while offering new practical guidelines for neurosurgical diseases linked to age.


Keywords: Neurodegenerative, protein malfunction, oxidative stress, MeDi, Bioactive compounds, omega-3-FA, cognition, AD, PD, Medicinal plants. ?
Full HTML:

1.          Gitler AD, Dhillon P, Shorter J. Neurodegenerative disease: models, mechanisms, and a new hope. Dis Model Mech. 2017;10(5):499-502. doi: 10.1242/dmm.030205, PMID 28468935.

2.          Heemels MT. Neurodegenerative diseases. Nature. 2016;539(7628):179. doi: 10.1038/539179a, PMID 27830810.

3.          Przedborski S, Vila M, Jackson-Lewis V. Neurodegeneration: what is it and where are we? J Clin Invest. 2003;111(1):3-10. doi: 10.1172/JCI17522, PMID 12511579.

4.          Lalotra Sunali VJS. Scientific Reports of Medicinal Plants Used for the Prevention and Treatment of Neurodegenerative diseases. Pharm. Biosci J. 2019;7(1):15-25. doi: 10.20510/ukjpb/7/i1/179297.

5.          Mosconi L, Brys M, Switalski R, Mistur R, Glodzik L, Pirraglia E, Tsui W, De Santi S, De Leon MJ. Maternal family history of Alzheimer’s disease predisposes to reduced brain glucose metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104(48):19067-72. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0705036104, PMID 18003925.

6.          Sheikh S, Safia, Haque E, Mir SS. Neurodegenerative diseases: multifactorial conformational diseases and their therapeutic interventions. J Neurodegener Dis. 2013;2013:563481. doi: 10.1155/2013/563481, PMID 26316993.

7.          Iriti M, Vitalini S, Fico G, Faoro F. Neuroprotective herbs and foods from different traditional medicines and diets. Molecules. 2010;15(5):3517-55. doi: 10.3390/molecules15053517, PMID 20657497.

8.          Reeve A, Simcox E, Turnbull D. Ageing and Parkinson’s disease: why is advancing age the biggest risk factor? Ageing Res Rev. 2014;14(1):19-30. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2014.01.004, PMID 24503004.

9.          Hindle JV. Ageing, neurodegeneration and Parkinson’s dec- ease. Age Ageing. 2010;39(2):156-61. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afp223, PMID 20051606.

10.       Migliore L, Coppedè F. Environmental-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders and aging. Mutat Res. 2009;674(1-2):73-84. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.09.013, PMID 18952194.

11.       Rubio-Perez JM, Morillas-Ruiz JM. A review: inflammatory process in Alzheimer’s disease, role of cytokines. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012, 15 pages:Article ID 756357. doi: 10.1100/2012/756357, PMID 22566778.

12.       Hefendehl JK, Neher JJ, Sühs RBS, Kohsaka S, Skodras A, Jucker M. Homeostatic and injury-induced microglia behavior in the aging brain. Aging Cell. 2014;13(1):60-9. doi: 10.1111/acel.12149, PMID 23953759.?

13.       Mosher KI, Wyss-Coray T. Microglial dysfunction in brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;88(4):594-604. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.01.008, PMID 24445162.

14.       Perry EK, Kilford L, Lees AJ, Burn DJ, Perry RH. Increased Alzheimer pathology in Parkinson’s disease related to antimuscarinic drugs. Ann Neurol. 2003;54(2):235-8. doi: 10.1002/ana.10639, PMID 12891676.?

15.       Beal MF, Shults CW. Effects of coenzyme Q10 in Huntington’s disease and early Parkinson’s disease. BioFactors. 2003;18(1-4):153-61. doi: 10.1002/biof.5520180218, PMID 14695931.

16.       Beal MF. Mitochondria take center stage in aging and neurodegeneration. Ann Neurol. 2005;58(4):495-505. doi: 10.1002/ana.20624, PMID 16178023.

17.       Small GW, Mazziotta JC, Collins MT, Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mandelkern MA, Kaplan A, La Rue A, Adamson CF, Chang L. Apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and cerebral glucose metabolism in relatives at risk for familial Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 1995;273(12):942-7, PMID 7884953.

18.       Muchowski PJ, Wacker JL. Modulation of neurodegeneration by molecular chaperones. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6(1):11-22. doi: 10.1038/nrn1587, PMID 15611723.

19.       Kishida KT, Klann E. Sources and targets of reactive oxygen species in synaptic plasticity and memory. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9(2):233-44. doi: 10.1089/ars.2007.9.ft-8, PMID 17115936.

20.       Rego AC, Oliveira CR. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species in excitotoxicity and apoptosis: implications for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochem Res. 2003;28(10):1563-74. doi: 10.1023/a:1025682611389, PMID 14570402.

21.       Indo HP, Yen HC, Nakanishi I, Matsumoto K, Tamura M, Nagano Y, Matsui H, Gusev O, Cornette R, Okuda T, Minamiyama Y, Ichikawa H, Suenaga S, Oki M, Sato T, Ozawa T, Clair DK, Majima HJ. A mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2015;56(1):1-7. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.14-42, PMID 25834301.

22.       Grimm A, Friedland K, Eckert A. Mitochondrial dysfunction: the missing link between aging and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. Biogerontology. 2016;17(2):281-96. doi: 10.1007/s10522-015-9618-4, PMID 26468143.

23.       Cobley JN, Fiorello ML, Bailey DM. 13 Reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Redox Biol. 2018;15:490-503. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.01.008, PMID 29413961.

24.       Aruoma OI, Bahorun T, Jen LS. Neuroprotection by bioactive components in medicinal and food plant extracts. Mutat Res. 2003;544(2-3):203-15. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2003.06.017, PMID 14644322.

25.       Ferrari CKB. Functional foods, herbs and nutraceuticals: towards biochemical mechanisms of healthy aging. Biogerontology. 2004;5(5):275-89. doi: 10.1007/s10522-004-2566-z, PMID 15547316.

26.       Zhao J. Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application. Rec Pat Biotechnol. 2007;1(1):75-97. doi: 10.2174/187220807779813893, PMID 19075834.

27.       Vecchia C, Bosetti C. Diet and cancer risk in Mediterranean countries. Hung Med J. 2007 Jan 1;1(1):13-23. doi: 10.1556/HMJ.1.2007.1.3.

28.       Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Ziegler-Graham K, Arrighi HM. Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2007;3(3):186-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2007.04.381, PMID 19595937.

29.       Power R, Prado-Cabrero A, Mulcahy R, Howard A, Nolan JM. The role of nutrition for the aging population: implications for cognition and Alzheimer’s disease. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 10:61939.https://doi. 2019;10:619-39. doi: 10.1146/annurev-food-030216, PMID 30908950.

30.       Barnes DE, Yaffe K. The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer’s disease prevalence. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(9):819-28. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70072-2, PMID 21775213.

31.       McClatchey WC, Mahady GB, Bennett BC, Shiels L, Savo V. Ethnobotany as a pharmacological research tool and recent developments in CNS-active natural products from ethnobotanical sources. Pharmacol Ther. 2009;123(2):239-54. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.04.002, PMID 19422851.

32.       Livingston G, Sommerlad A, Orgeta V, Costafreda SG, Huntley J, Ames D, Ballard C, Banerjee S, Burns A, Cohen-Mansfield J, Cooper C, Fox N, Gitlin LN, Howard R, Kales HC, Larson EB, Ritchie K, Rockwood K, Sampson EL, Samus Q, Schneider LS, Selbæk G, Teri L, Mukadam N. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. Lancet. 2017;390(10113):2673-734. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31363-6, PMID 28735855.

33.       Solanki I, Parihar P, Parihar MS. Neurodegenerative diseases: from available treatments to prospective herbal therapy. Neurochem Int. 2016;95:100-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2015.11.001, PMID 26550708.

34.       Aridi YS, Walker JL, Wright ORL. The association between the Mediterranean dietary pattern and cognitive health: a systematic review. Nutrients. 2017;9(7):E674. doi: 10.3390/nu9070674, PMID 28657600.

35.       Alcaíno J, Baeza M, Cifuentes V. Carotenoid distribution in nature. Subcell Biochem. 2016;79:3-33. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-39126-7_1, PMID 27485217.

36.       Mohammadzadeh Honarvar N, Saedisomeolia A, Abdolahi M, Shayeganrad A, Taheri Sangsari G, Hassanzadeh Rad B, Muench G. Molecular anti-inflammatory mechanisms of retinoids and carotenoids in Alzheimer’s disease: a review of current evidence. J Mol Neurosci. 2017;61(3):289-304. doi: 10.1007/s12031-016-0857-x, PMID 27864661.

37.       McDougle DR, Watson JE, Abdeen AA, Adili R, Caputo MP, Krapf JE, Johnson RW, Kilian KA, Holinstat M, Das A. Anti-inflammatory ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(30):E6034-43. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1610325114, PMID 28687674.

38.       Sunali lalotra, J S Vaghela. Scientific reports of medicinal plants used for the prevention and treatment of Neurodegenrative diseases. ISSN: 2582-0540. Pharmaceutical and Biosciences journal. Nov 2018.

39.       Ramavati pal, Jan Larsen, Simon Geir Moller.chapter 2-The potential of proteomics in understanding Neurodegeneration. International journal of Neurobiology, vol121, 2015, pages25-28.

40.       Jogender Mehla, Pooja Gupta, Monika Pahuja, Deepti Diwan and Diksha Diksha. Indian Medicinal Herbs and Formulations for Alzheimer’s Disease, from Traditional Knowledge to Scientific Assessment. MDPI, 10 December 2020.

[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions