International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences
    ISSN 0975-6299

Int J Pharm Bio Sci Volume 11 Issue 4, 2020 (October-December), Pages:25-33

Qualitative Phytochemical Screening, Investigation of Macro Minerals and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves and Stem Extracts of Delonix Regia medicinal Plant

Atul K. Wanjari*

Biologically active compounds are present in medicinal plants which are used for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present study is to find out the phytochemical constituents and metal ions present in the stem and leaf extract of Delonix regia plant and to study its antimicrobial activity. The objective of the present study is to extract the phytochemical constituents in various organic extracts using soxhelt extraction process and also to study the presence of various macro minerals present in the extract using a flame photometer. This encourages efforts to continue and explore natural materials that can be used as new antimicrobial drugs against various bacteria. In order to achieve the aim of the present study, four different solvents were used, namely DMSO, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Propan-2-ol, water as a solvent medium. Extraction was done using soxhlet apparatus. Total 20 phytochemical constituents were investigated in the present study. Macro minerals like sodium, potassium, and calcium were investigated from the extracts by using flame photometer on the basis of colour of flame. The extract was screened against the gram positive and gram negative bacteria like E. coli, S. typhi, S. abony, P.aeruginosa, and B. subtilis for the antimicrobial study. The leaves and stem extract contain saponin, alkaloid, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, quinine, coumarins, Tannins etc. FT-IR analysis detected –OH, carbonyl, -NH functional groups in the extract. The results show that the presence of reducing sugar phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponine, tannins, sterols, glycoside, cardiac glycoside, cyanogenic glycoside. Consuming foods rich in phytochemicals may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.  

Keywords: Delonix regia, Medicinal plant, Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Macro minerals, Bioactive compounds
Full HTML:

1. Yoo S, Kim K, Nam H, Lee D. Discovering health benefits of phytochemicals with integrated analysis of the Molecular Network, chemical properties and ethnopharmacological evidence. Nutrients. 2018 Aug;10(8):1042. doi: 10.3390/nu10081042, PMID 30096807.

2. Stankovi? N, Mihajilov-Krstev T, Zlatkovi? B, Stankov-Jovanovi? V, Miti? V, Jovi? J, ?omi? L, Koci? B, Bernstein N. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of traditional medicinal Plantsfrom the Balkan peninsula. NJAS Wageningen J Life Sci. 2016;78:21-8. doi: 10.1016/j.njas.2015.12.006.

3. Khanam Z, Wen CS, Bhat IUH. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of root and stem extracts of wild Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali). J King Saud Univ Sci. 2015;27(1):23-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jksus.2014.04.006.

4. Rivera MA, Bijttebier S, Tuenter E. Phytochemical characterization and comparative studies of four Cecropia species collected in Panama using multivariate data analysis [Sci Rep:2019:9]: 1763. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38334-4.

5. Behera SK. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of root of Asparagus racemosus Linn. Int J Food Prop. 2018;21(1):2681-8. doi: 10.1080/10942912.2018.1560310.

6. Liviac D, Raunelli P, Alvis R, Puente S, Best I, Reategui O. Phytochemical Analysis, in vitro Antioxidant Capacity and Toxicity Assessment of Copaifera paupera Oleoresin. Pharmacogn J;2019(11 (2)):374-8. doi: 10.5530/pj.2019.11.57.

7. Ayyanar M, Sankarasivaraman K, Ignacimuthu S. Traditional Herbal medicine used for treatment diabetes among two major tribal group in south Tamil Nadu, India. Ethnobotanical Leafl. 2008;12:276.

8. Chandra MS, Sasikala K, Anand T. Antimicrobial and wound healing potential of Canthiumcoromandelicum leaf extract- A preliminary study. Res J Phytochem. 2014;8:35-41. doi: 10.3923/rjphyto.2014.35.41.

9. Devare SM, Kale AA, Chandrachood PS, Deshpande NR, Salvekar JP. Study of elemental analysis of a medicinal plant Morinda pubescens. Scholars Research Library. 2011;3(3):58-62.

10. Parekh J, Chanda SV. In vitro activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turk J Biol. 2007;31:53-8. mailto:

11. Jungalwala FB, Cama HR. Carotenoids in Delonix regia flower. Biochem J. 1962;85(1):1-8. doi: 10.1042/bj0850001, PMID 14029913.

12. Nikhal SB. DAMBE PA. Hydroalcoholic extraction of Mangifera indica (Leaves) by Soxhelation. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2010;1(7):78-81. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.1(7).78-81.

13. Kavitha S, Xavier VRA. Preliminary phytochemical Screening of Root Bark of Delonix regia. Int Res J Pharm. 2011;2(10):42-3.

14. Kamal MM, Parmar PT, Panigrahi B, Anand IS, Patel CN. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Pharmacogn J. 2011;3(24):45-9. doi: 10.5530/pj.2011.24.9.

15. Shiramane RS, Biradar KV, Chivde BV, Shambhulingayya HM, Goud V. In-vivo antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanolic extract of Delonix regia flowers in experimental induced diarrhoea in Wistar albino rats. Int J Res Pharm Chem. 2011;1(3):442-7.

16. Azab SS, Abdel-Daim M, Eldahshan OA. Phytochemical, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Delonix regia leaves extract. Med Chem Res. 2013;22(9):4269-77. doi: 10.1007/s00044-012-0420-4.

17. Shiramane R, Chivde B, Kamshetty M. Gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Delonix regia flowers in experimental induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Int J Res Pharm Chem. 2011;2(5):234-8.

18. Abdel NS, Fadia SY, Mohamed LA. Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity and their assessment. Med Aromat Plants. 2014;3(1):1-12. doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000151.

19. Gunjan M, Ravindran M, Sengamalam R, Goutam KJ, Jha AK. Pharmacognostic and antidiabetic study of Clitoria ternatea. Int J Phytomed. 2010;2:373-8. doi: 10.5138/ijpm.2010.0975.0185.02052.

20. Mariajancyrani J, Chandramohan G, Saravanan P, Shivaraj S. In-vitro antioxidant potential of Delonixregia Leaves, scholars Acad. J Pharmacol. 2013;2(6):468-71.

21. Rahman M, Hasan N, Das AK, Hossain T, Jahan R, Khatun A, Rahmatullah M. Effect of Delonix regia Leaf extract on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(1):34-6. PMID 22238481.

22. Gayathri V, Kiruba D. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of leaf powder extracts of Psidium guajava L. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res. 2014;6(2):332-4.,Vol6,Issue2,Article34.pdf.

23. Auwal MS, Saka S, Mairiga IA, Sanda KA, Ibrahim ASA. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa), Vet Res Forum Veterinary Research. Forum. 2014. 5(2):95-100.

24. Paul R, Gayathri R, Priya VV. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and estimation of total phenol content in carrot extract. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. July–August 2017;45(1):34-6.

25. Sathiyavani RN. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Protein content in the Seed extracts of Cucurbita maxima. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2014;5(7):3637-42.

26. Balouiri MS, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: a review. J Pharm Anal. 2016;6(2):71-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpha.2015.11.005, PMID 29403965.

27. Sowjanya P, Srinivasa BP, Lakshmi NM. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of Amaranthus tricolor (L) methanolic leaf extract against clinical isolates of urinary tract pathogens. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2015;9(20):1381-5. doi: 10.5897/AJMR2015.7294.

28. Phan-Canh T, Le-Thi-Thanh T, Hoang-Tran-Viet H, and TuAnh N. DPPH-Scavenging and Antimicrobial Activities of Asteraceae Medicinal Plants on Uropathogenic Bacteria. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2020;2020:Article ID 7807026, 9 pages. doi: 10.1155/2020/7807026.

29. Manimekalai P, David Raj C, Dhanalakshmi R. Evaluation of bioactive constituents in hydroalcoholic extract of Nlumbonucifera by FTIR, HPTLC and GC-MS analysis. Int J ChemTech Res. 2019;12(3):103-8.

30. Shanmukha I, Patel H, Patel J. Riyazunnisa. Quantification of total phenol and flavonoid content of Delonix regia Flowers. Int J ChemTech Res. January–March 2011;3(1):280-3

31. Vivek MN, Sachidananda SHC, Manasa M, Pallavi S, Kambar Y, Asha MM, Chaithra M, Kekuda PTR, Mallikarjun N, Onkarappa R. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant activity of leaf and flower extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia and Peltophorum ferrugineum. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2013;3(8):064-71. doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.3811.

32. Khursheed R, Rizwani GH, Zahid H, Ishaque S. Comprehensive Standardization and Assessment of Behavioural Core in Rodents of ethanolic Extract of Floral Part of Delonix regia (bojer ex hook.) Raf. Of Pakistan. Int J N Technol Res. 2016;2(1):80-8.  

33. Pensalwar SB, Deshmukh AA, Patil MK, Gaikwad NZ, Khan MA, Bhonsle AV, Gade RB. Phytochemical analysis and percent extractability of Delonix regia, Cassia alata and Murraya koenigii leaf extracts. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018;7(6):332-5.

34. Majouli K, Hamdi A, Hlila MB. Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of Hertia cheirifolia L. roots extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017;10(12):1134-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.10.020, PMID 29268968.

35. Thangi J, Ashvini HA, Singh KG. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of ethanomedicinal folklore plant-Clerodendrum colebrookianum. J Glob Biosci:2016.5(1), 3559-66.

36. Sudhapriya A, Dhivya R. Phytochemical screening and larvicidal efficacy of solvent extracts of Delonix regia Leaf and Flower against vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Res Rev. 2019;6(3):206-14.

37. Dhanalakshmi D, Manimegalai K. Antibacterial activity of leaf and seed extracts of Delonix regia and Achyranthus aspera against selected bacterial strains. Int J Pharm Med Biol Sci. 2013;2(2):31-5.

38. Bhokare P, Khadke A, Kulkarni S, Kuchekar G. Study of antibacterial activity of leaf, stem, root methanolic extract from Delonix regia. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2018;7(3):904-9.

39. Oyedeji OA, Azeez LA, Osifade BG. Chemical and nutritional compositions of flame of forest (Delonix regia) seeds and seed Oil. SAfrjchem. 2017;70:16-20. doi: 10.17159/0379-4350/2017/v70a3.

40. Goldson Barnaby A, Reid R, Rattray V, Williams R, Denny M. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts. Biochem Res Int. 2016;2016:3850102. doi: 10.1155/2016/3850102, PMID 27034834.

[Download PDF]
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy
Pharmaceutical Fields
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutics
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Novel drug delivery system
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Nanotechnology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacology
Welcome to IJPBS,Pharmaceutics, Novel, drug, delivery, system, Nanotechnology, Pharmacology, Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy
© Copyright 2009-2015 IJPBS, India. All rights reserved. Specialized online journals by ubijournal. Website by Ubitech Solutions
         Home I Contact I Terms & Conditions